Alumni News Editor: Marianne Wolff, M.D.
Alumni News Writer: Peter Wortsman
Adventures in Virology
BY PETER WORTSMAN
The laboratory — all 80 square feet of it — in which Jay Levy’65, co-discoverer of the AIDS virus, identified the infamous microbe in 1983 is now literally a part of history, dismantled (bioassay hood, lab coat, notebooks, Bunsen burner, and all) and stored for posterity at the Smithsonian Institution’s National Museum of American History in Washington, D.C.
|Jay Levy’65 in his lab
|PHOTO CREDIT: PETER WORTSMAN
Dr. Levy, professor of medicine at the University of California, San Francisco, who half-jokingly dubbed his old “micro”-nook “Center for Human Tumor Virus Research,” likes to tell the story of a site visit by former California Gov. George Deukmejian. Seeking state funding for a new building, University administration wanted to show the governor how crowded things were. But when the famously stern-faced governor stepped inside he broke into a smile: “You found the virus here?!” The virologist nodded. “You see,” said the governor, “great things can happen in small spaces.”
A Key Player in HIV/AIDS Research
One of three scientific groups (along with those of Luc Montagnier and Robert Gallo) credited with discovering the AIDS virus, which he originally called the AIDS-associated retrovirus (ARV), Dr. Levy and his UCSF team remain key players in HIV/AIDS research. The first to clone the virus, in conjunction with Chiron Corporation, his group subsequently pioneered heat-treatment studies to inactivate HIV in clotting factor preparations, assuring the safety of blood products for hemophiliacs. Among other findings, he first reported the presence of the virus in cells of the brain and bowel, relating HIV infection to diseases in these tissues. He also showed the ability of a novel CD8+ cell antiviral factor (CAF) naturally secreted by T lymphocytes from healthy infected individuals to suppress viral infection without killing the infected cell. The latter discovery has profound implications for the development of a vaccine and immune-based therapies and is a major focus of his ongoing studies.
Dr. Levy’s current research program in the Department of Medicine and the Cancer Research Institute at UCSF comprises a small office hardly large enough to fit a desk and chair and a few filing cabinets. But the office, like the small size of his original human virus lab, does not appear to have crimped his style or hampered his productivity. Dr. Levy’s warm smile is that of a man in his element. The filing cabinets are bursting and the floor is heaped high with mountains of papers on various research projects in progress. The walls are covered with his own impressionistic painted landscapes and a few photographs, including one taken of him in Paris with his twin brother, Dr. Stuart Levy, and the late Nobel Prize-winning author Samuel Beckett, best known for his play “Waiting for Godot.”
A lab assistant was on duty bowed over the bioassay hood in an adjoining laboratory when Dr. Levy welcomed P&S Journal for an interview one morning in January 2009.
An Out-of-the-Box Thinker
A double major in biology and French at Wesleyan University, where he earned his B.A. with high honors in 1960, Dr. Levy has kept his intellectual horizons wide open and his interests wide-ranging. His curriculum vitae runs 56 pages at last count, with close to 500 scientific articles and reviews, 14 books he has authored or edited, including “HIV and the Pathogenesis of AIDS,” the seminal sole-authored work on the subject, and his classic four-volume series, “The Retroviridae.” It also includes a memorial tribute, “Conversations with Samuel Beckett,” published in American Scholar. The virologist first met the famously hermetic author while on a Fulbright fellowship before medical school at the Laboratoire de Biologie Animale at the Université de Paris. The two of them remained fast friends until Beckett’s death in 1989. “He [Beckett] said that the laboratory was like the theater,” Dr. Levy recalled in the American Scholar tribute. “The scientist is the director and the test tubes are the players. You may predict what will happen, but you do not know exactly how it is going to turn out.”
Outside of the laboratory, the versatile Dr. Levy is also an accomplished pianist, avid golfer and skier, impassioned botanist, antique car buff with a 1931 Citroen, and a respected painter whose work includes one of the painted ceramic hearts for the “Hearts in San Francisco” campaign, an installation in public places that features hearts painted by local artists to help raise funds for the San Francisco General Hospital Foundation.
|Jay Levy’s painted ceramic heart of two whales lost
in San Francisco Bay, commissioned by the
San Francisco General Hospital’s “Hearts in
San Francisco” campaign
“Does all this detract from my ability to do science? Absolutely not, it adds to it!” he insists. “The arts and sciences work together and with both you can appreciate the overall value of medicine. A person is a total being: the psychology and the nature and the ethics and all the feelings and emotions, this is more than biochemical reactions.”
The son of a physician-father in family practice and an artist mother, Dr. Levy grew up in Wilmington, Del., in a household that fostered investigation and cultivated the imagination. “We lived in the country and we liked to go into the forest and discover animals; biology was all around us.” He and his twin brother, Stuart, and his sister, Ellen, all achieved successful careers in medical research.
The Intellectual Lure of Viruses and Other Microbial Challenges
His interest in viruses dates back to his college days when he happened on a now classic article by the French virologist Raymond Latarjet suggesting that viruses could cause human cancer. This idea sparked his imagination and set him on a lifelong quest.
At P&S, he and a group of his classmates, including David Miller’65, Larry Ng’65, and Fred Siegal’65, formed a basic science discussion group to hash over recent research findings. Working in the laboratory of Dr. Herb Rosenkrantz during his second and third years, Dr. Levy co-authored the discovery that a new compound, hydroxyurea, blocks DNA division in bacteria, his third published paper. That drug is now used in cancer therapy.
Throughout medical school, he pursued passions for science and foreign experiences and participated in Columbia’s International Fellows Program. During his summers, he conducted research in Israel, Sweden, Kenya, and Uganda, the latter stint devoted to the search for the viral etiology of Burkitt’s lymphoma. In his fourth year, following his return from Africa, he learned many aspects of clinical virology from virologist Eru Tanabe in Dr. E.C. Curnen’s laboratory. This training was put to use to evaluate the viral cause of Burkitt’s lymphoma. It was obvious in medical school that he enjoyed the human contact of clinical medicine but from the start he knew he was headed for a life in the laboratory studying the cause of human diseases.
At the University of Pennsylvania, where he did his internship in internal medicine, Dr. Levy balanced a heavy clinical caseload with bench work at nights and on weekends. He assessed the role of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in Burkitt’s lymphoma in the laboratory of Drs. Werner and Brigitta Henle at Children’s Hospital, a Penn affiliate. Their studies helped prove the association of a high-level immune response to EBV with development of the tumor. At the same time, Dr. Levy conducted research on human T lymphocytes at the Wistar Institute with Dr. Vittorio Defendi. Those scientific experiences helped prepare him for the challenge of AIDS later in his career.
With the war in Vietnam raging overseas he was pleased to be accepted as a staff associate at the National Cancer Institute at the NIH, where he studied DNA and RNA oncogenic viruses in a laboratory directed by Dr. Robert J. Huebner. Like his classmate Keith Brodie’65 and other illustrious P&S alumni of his generation, Harold Varmus’66 and Robert Lefkowitz’66, he found an intellectual oasis in Bethesda. “It was highly competitive to get into the NIH, and if you were lucky enough to be there, you worked with some wonderful scientists.” His mentor, the iconic virologist, Dr. Huebner, was an imaginative thinker who fostered curiosity and calculated risk-taking in his young protégé. “Everyone said, ‘Bob Huebner, 50 percent unbelievable, great ideas, and 50 percent crazy ones,’ but he was very often right.”
Xenotropic Viruses and Other Enigmas
It was at the NIH, in studies of viruses found in the New Zealand Black Mouse — “the most published mouse in history, next to Mickey!” — that Dr. Levy made an important discovery that would put him on the map years later. In the cells from these mice that developed autoimmune disease and lymphoma Dr. Levy found and managed to grow retroviruses with unique characteristics. They came out of one species, the mouse, but could only infect and grow in cells from other species, like human, rat, or duck. For this reason, he called them “xenotropic” viruses, based on the Greek word xenos for “foreign.”
Dr. Levy would apply his taxonomical talent and knowledge of Greek to name two other types of inherited or endogenous mouse retroviruses discovered by colleagues at NIH: the “ecotropic” virus that “stayed within the mouse and could go back and infect other mice” and the “amphotropic” virus that “grows in both mouse and other species.”
Reflecting on his serendipitous discovery of murine xenotropic retroviruses, a subject that continues to intrigue him, Dr. Levy says: “Imagination helps you to realize that there are things out there that we don’t expect or fully understand. And I think embracing the arts, literature, and music opens your mind to other ways of thinking.”
In the course of his early research, he had what he calls “another unconventional idea,” namely that “maybe viruses aren’t all harmful.” The discovery of viruses in mice that cannot reinfect those mice led him to wonder what, then, they were doing in the mouse. He could find them expressed in normal tissues including placentas. In subsequent studies of human placentas he found evidence of endogenous retroviruses that he felt played a positive role in enabling the placenta to interact well with the uterine wall via cell:cell fusion or syncytia formation. That observation was supported by his later finding of “a blocking protein” in placentas of women with multiple miscarriages that prevented the biochemical activity of these viruses. This posed a very interesting hypothesis: “Just like we inherit bacteria for a benefit, we might also inherit viruses for a benefit.”
|Jay Levy’65, left, with author
Samuel Beckett and Dr. Levy’s twin brother,
Dr. Stuart Levy
A Receptivity to the Unexpected and
Fondness for the Foreign
Throughout his career, Dr. Levy has continued to seek out international research experiences. In 1970 on a return trip to Uganda, he helped capture wild chimpanzees and test their blood for Epstein-Barr virus and hepatitis B virus.
In 1971, as a visiting scientist on a NATO fellowship, he studied human T cell transformation by murine RNA tumor viruses at the Hôpital St. Louis in Paris. In Paris he also collaborated on experiments involving the infection of mammalian cells with DNA from RNA virus-transformed rodent cells. On two leaves of absence he worked as a visiting scientist with Dr. Nechama Haran-Ghera at the Weizmann Institute of Science in Rehovot, Israel: first in 1978 on an Eleanor Roosevelt Fellowship, to study T-cell differentiation and viruses in radiation-induced mouse tumors, then in 1982 on an International Cancer Technology Transfer Fellowship, to research dual-tropic type C viruses in mouse T-cell leukemia.
In 1979, he spent eight months with Nobelist François Jacob at the Pasteur Institute, studying the potential role of retroviruses in normal embryogenesis that rekindled his interest in showing that inherited viruses could be beneficial. These international experiences not only exposed him to different scientific approaches and research techniques, but also made him more aware of the global reach of disease, an insight that would prove invaluable in his later work on the AIDS pandemic.
A New Disease Hits San Francisco
In 1971 he completed a second-year of residency in medicine at UCSF and the following year joined the faculty as assistant clinical professor in the Department of Medicine and research associate at the Cancer Research Institute, rising to the rank of professor of medicine in 1985.
Having come to the West Coast to continue his pursuit of a viral trigger for cancer using studies of mice, it was his ultimate dream to elucidate viral mechanisms in such human diseases as multiple sclerosis, Crohn’s disease, autoimmunity, and others. One process that intrigued him was called “hit and run,” Dr. Levy explains. “The virus comes in, activates the immune system, gets eliminated, but the system may remain too overly programmed to fight the virus. That type of reaction could be responsible for those diseases.”
|One process that intrigued him was called “hit and run,” Dr. Levy explains. “The virus comes in, activates the immune system, gets eliminated, but the system may remain too overly programmed to fight the virus. That type of reaction could be responsible for those diseases.”
His research focus, however, changed dramatically in 1981 when one of his former postdoctoral fellows, Dr. Paul Volberding, now head of medicine at the VA Hospital in San Francisco, called to discuss the case of a patient with Kaposi’s sarcoma. Because of the possible viral origin of this particular cancer, Dr. Levy decided to take a closer look. He hoped that he would establish the cause and did not realize that this investigation would lead him to identify and, thereafter, devote years to the study of a deadly new agent and disease: the AIDS virus, which he and members of the subcommittee of the International Committee on the Taxonomy of Viruses, chaired by Harold Varmus’66, named the human immunodeficiency virus.
The tenor of the time and the attitude of the university were hardly supportive of his AIDS investigations, given the character of the infected patient population — mostly gays and IV drug users. But working closely together with little or no support, Dr. Levy and a small group of UCSF researchers persevered. Independently discovering the virus, he and his team were the first to clone it in collaboration with Chiron Corporation. He also showed that heating clotting factor preparations would protect hemophiliacs from HIV infection. It took six months before his recommendation to pull all blood products from the market was heeded, during which time more transfused hemophiliacs were infected. “What could I have done!” he recalls with much regret. “I was relatively young then and did not know how to have our work influence the decision of industry.” His pioneering approach to heat treatment of clotting factor preparations, for which he was honored with the Murray Thailan Award from the National Hemophilia Foundation, subsequently protected hemophiliacs from HIV infection.
Dr. Levy also encountered skepticism when he reported finding the virus in biopsies of brain and bowel tissue, where, according to the thinking at that time, the virus was not supposed to be.
Following Long-Term Survivors:
|Jay Levy’65 with his vintage 1931 Citroen
A Possible Clue to a Cure
In 1986 he had another “oh! ah!” experience based on his studies of long-term survivors of HIV infection. His lab was the first to show that a small number of otherwise healthy infected individuals secrete a CD8+ cell antiviral factor (CAF) as an innate immune system function. CAF controls HIV replication without killing the infected cell, thereby blocking the onset of AIDS. This was the first indication that CD8+ lymphocytes can have an antiviral function that is not the classic cytotoxic one.
“We then learned that there were some ways in which we could increase the function of the CD8+ cells by making them interact with certain antibodies to the cell surface.” In ongoing research, in collaboration with a group at UC Davis, Dr. Levy’s team is trying to “induce this type of innate immunity with a vaccine that alerts and gets other components of the immune system working better.”
Grappling with All Sides of the Disease
Interested from the start in the epidemiology of the disease, as well as its pathogenesis, Dr. Levy traveled to Haiti as early as 1982 and to the Dominican Republic, where his sister, Dr. Ellen Koenig, a respected virologist, now runs a major clinic for HIV infection and infectious diseases. Together they collected blood samples in gay bars and hotels, a project that helped trace the entry of the disease into that country through tourists and Haitian sugarcane workers. In Haiti he attended and photographed a voodoo ceremony, pursuing and disproving the hypothesis that the virus might have come from chickens, whose blood many initiates drink.
In his lively lectures on AIDS to medical students and health professionals, one of which is featured on You Tube, Dr. Levy tackles all aspects of the disease, including its etiology. “The virus that causes human AIDS probably came into the animal kingdom hundreds and perhaps thousands of years ago and evolved with the species,” he says. As to its passage into humans, “work with infected chimpanzees is becoming more and more compelling as the source of HIV. But don’t tell me that it happened in the last 100 years. I think the virus had been in human populations in Africa for a long time but was just never recognized.”
|One process that intrigued him was called “hit and run,” Dr. Levy explains. “The virus comes in, activates the immune system, gets eliminated, but the system may remain too overly programmed to fight the virus. That type of reaction could be responsible for those diseases.”
Saluted in San Francisco
In 1998 Dr. Levy was featured in the San Francisco Chronicle, along with former San Francisco Mayor Willie Brown and filmmaker George Lucas, as one of 10 individuals who most affected Bay Area life. A Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and the American Academy of Microbiology, his other awards include a Distinguished Alumnus Award and honorary degree in science from Wesleyan University, the first UCSF/ARI George Sarlo Award for Excellence in Mentoring, an Award of Distinction from the American Foundation for AIDS Research (amfAR), the Abbott Award for Outstanding Research in Immunology, and the 2008 Gold Medal of the P&S Alumni Association for Outstanding Achievements in Medical Research.
Member of the World Affairs Council and the Council on Foreign Relations, Dr. Levy is also an adviser to France, India, Italy, China, Thailand, Mexico, Ethiopia, and the Dominican Republic on HIV/AIDS. He is editor-in-chief of the journal AIDS.
At the conclusion of the interview Dr. Levy gave the writer a glimpse of human lymphocytes, clumped together like cobblestones, magnified under the microscope. “These are the CD4+ cells that are susceptible to HIV, the major targets of the virus,” Dr. Levy explained. “They’re social beings like us. See those projections bringing the cells together. They really benefit from one another.”
It is tempting to reflect on Dr. Levy’s recollection of Samuel Beckett. In the tiny spotlight, the cellular protagonists mime the drama of disease under the watchful eye of the director-scientist. Godot never showed up, but Dr. Levy is hopeful that this tiny circle of light will hold the key to the scientific puzzle of AIDS.
Alumni Reunion Weekend 2009
|from top: Honorary Alumni Day Chairman
Lewis “Bud” Rowland;Thomas P. Sculco’69;
John MacIver’49 greets Mary Garris from
the Alumni Office and Martha Welch’71,
Alumni Day Scientific Session
Alumni Day chairman Andrew G. Frantz ’55 got the weekend’s activities going on May 15 by calling upon 2009 Honorary Alumni Day Chairman Dr. Lewis P. “Bud” Rowland to put his intellectual stamp on the proceedings of the Scientific Session. “This is the first time I got an award for being old,” quipped the honoree. Professor of neurology and chairman emeritus of the Department of Neurology at P&S and former director of neurology at Presbyterian Hospital, Dr. Rowland trained at the Neurological Institute and was one of the first neurologists to apply biochemistry to his research. He is best known for work on neuromuscular diseases, authoring several landmark papers and editing two widely read books on ALS. At Columbia he co-founded and served as co-director of the H. Houston Merritt Clinical Research Center for Muscular Dystrophy and Related Diseases and also served for many years as co-director of the Eleanor and Lou Gehrig MDA/ALS Center.
The following papers were presented at the Scientific Session:
“Novel Options for Neuroblastoma Therapy,” Peter Zage’99, assistant professor, Division of Pediatrics, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, University of Texas
“The Economics of New Age Arthroplasty: Can We Afford It?” Thomas P. Sculco’69, professor and chair, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Weill Cornell Medical College, and surgeon-in-chief, Hospital for Special Surgery
“Cell Survival Pathways in Lung Cancer,” Fadlo R. Khuri’89, professor and chair, Department of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Emory University School of Medicine
“Evolution of Breast Imaging: The Past 25 Years,” Rachel F. Brem’84, professor and vice chair, Department of Radiology, George Washington University School of Medicine and Health Sciences
“Physicians and Other Health Care Workers Are a Reservoir for Pneumocystis Jirovicii, the Cause of Pneumocystis Pneumonia,” Laurence Huang’89, professor of medicine, University of California, San Francisco
“Boron Neutron Capture Therapy at the Crossroads: Challenges and Opportunities,” Rolf F. Barth’64, professor of pathology, Ohio State University
“Timber Rattlesnake Envenomation,” Lud Gutmann’59, professor of neurology, West Virginia University School of Medicine
“Identification of the Water Channel,” Richard M. Hays’54, professor of medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine
|clockwise from top: Class of 1949 with Dean Lee Goldman;
1954 classmates Burton D. Cohen, John A. Ramsdell, Marvin Lipman,
P. Roy Vagelos, and Vincent Butler;
Class of 1959; Class of 1969; and Class of 1974
On Friday evening, anniversary classes converged for reunion dinners at various venues in midtown and at the medical center’s Donald F. Tapley Faculty Club. P&S dropped in on the 50-year reunion dinner at the Century Club.
Class of 1959 chair Kenneth Forde, who hosted
the dinner, reported that the class reached its projected $1 million goal for a class gift to establish a Class of 1959 Scholarship Fund. Professor of surgery emeritus at P&S, Dr. Forde is a member of both the Board of Visitors of the medical center and the Board of Trustees of Columbia University.
“What field of medicine are you in?” one gentleman was asked at the cocktail reception. “I’m in the retired field!” grinned I. Bradley Gordon, a retired pulmonologist from Phoenix. Dr. Gordon was an active member of the reunion committee. The un-retiring neurologist Lud Gutmann stepped down after 28 years as chair of the Department of Neurology at West Virginia University but still sees patients and teaches and mentors medical students and residents. In recent years he has taken up the pen to write stories inspired by experiences in practice.
Another member of the class, William V. Shaw, an infectious disease specialist, spent much of his career in Britain, where he co-founded and served as a professor of biochemistry at the University of Leicester medical school until his retirement in 1998 and founded a high tech drug design and discovery company. He was the only non-Brit to serve successive British governments as an appointed member of the governing councils of the Medical Research Council (Britain’s NIH) and the Agriculture and Food Research Council, for which he chaired the committee that investigated mad cow disease. Currently retired as a volunteer teacher and farmer in Maine, his immediate goal is to finish off last summer’s garlic and perfect his peach wine.
| from left: Anneliese Sitarz’54 and P. Roy Vagelos’54;
Fred Pittman’59 and Kenneth Forde’59; Peter Moskovitz’69 and Thomas Garvey,
husband of Carol Garvey’69 and brother of the late Glenda Garvey’69
Gastroenterologist Fred Pittman, in town from Sullivan’s Island in South Carolina, is professor of medicine emeritus at the Medical University of South Carolina. Among his current passions is helping underprivileged children find their way to his old boarding school, Phillips Exeter Academy. “From time to time when I’ve been in New York,” Dr. Pittman recalled, “if I’ve had a few hours, I would go up to P&S and walk the halls. Nourishing. Very nourishing.”
Dean’s Day Program: From Broadway to Botswana
MC Jay Levy’65; Mpiko Ntsekhe’94; keynote speaker
Wafaa El-Sadr; Natalia Kanem’80; and Nancy Anderson’80
Native Guinean griot Famoro Dioubaté and his band Kakande set the beat with traditional West African music May 16 at the Dean’s Day Program, titled “Columbia in Africa: Bringing Hope to AIDS-Torn Lands.” The program highlighted efforts of alumni, CUMC faculty, and students to make a difference.
The morning’s moderator, Jay A. Levy’65, professor of medicine at UC San Francisco, co-discoverer of HIV, and a key player in the search for a cure (see Alumni Profile, Page 32), recalled his own formative experience studying Burkitt’s lymphoma on a third-year medical student elective in Uganda. Citing the work of Columbia’s International Center for AIDS Care and Treatment Programs (ICAP), with centers in 14 African nations, Dr. Levy noted: “I am very proud that my medical alma mater is doing such important work in Africa.” ICAP was established by the morning’s keynote speaker, Wafaa El-Sadr, M.D.
In his welcoming remarks, Dean Lee Goldman gave a first-hand view of the positive effect ICAP is having, based on a trip he took to Africa with Dr. El-Sadr two years ago. “For me, it was really a transformational experience. We now have a steady stream of Columbia students going to experience the human side of global health.”
Members of the Bard Hall Players gave a stirring rendition of “The Circle of Life” from the Broadway show, “The Lion King.”
Presenters included Al Ruenes’88, a urologist in private practice, who described teaching radical prostatectomy in Sub-Saharan Africa. Natalia Kanem’80, president of the ELMA Philanthropies, and Nancy Anderson’80, a program manager at Washington State Medicaid and faculty member at Evergreen State College, spoke together on their experiences delivering pediatric care in Southern Africa. In an environment of scarce medical resources, Dr. Anderson recalled, “I had to rely on the very basic clinical skills I learned at P&S to treat people with minimal technical aid.” Abby Chiverton’09 gave a slide presentation on her recent student rotation in Ethiopia. Thirty percent of her class, she noted, pursued a global health experience to see what health-care systems elsewhere are like. And South African native Mpiko Ntsekhe’94, a cardiologist in Capetown, South Africa, offered an African perspective on the care of HIV and the cardiovascular system. “In the midst of all this doom and gloom,” Dr. Ntsekhe stressed, “there is a small space for the advancement of science.”
Dr. El-Sadr, a global leader in the treatment modalities for HIV and TB and recipient of the prestigious MacArthur Fellowship, delivered a powerful keynote address titled “Tackling the HIV Epidemic: A Path to Better Health for All.” Dr. El-Sadr, professor of clinical medicine at P&S, is founder and director of ICAP at the Mailman School of Public Health. The center applies Dr. El-Sadr’s multifaceted, family-focused approach to prevention, care, and treatment in 14 nations. Her approach stresses the need to take into account a community’s cultural and social milieu as the key to an effective regimen of care. Her original goal, as she put it, was to try to address “a remarkable paradox and ethical dilemma,” namely that “anti-viral drugs were most abundant where the HIV infections were least prevalent.” The key, she realized, to tackling the human cost of the epidemic was “to work hand-in-hand with people on the ground,” including “people already infected with HIV who want to help.” ICAP reaches more than 500,000 people who have HIV. Looking to the future, on both a somber and a hopeful note, Dr. El-Sadr predicted that “the legacy of the HIV epidemic may not only be the transformation of individuals and societies but also of health systems.”
Recalling the late Dr. Harold Brown, a revered professor of tropical medicine who influenced several generations of students at P&S, Dr. Levy concluded the program by saying, “Dr. Brown really wanted to get us involved in international health, and it’s about time!”
A lunch that followed included an African-inspired dessert of Ethiopian Coffee Flan prepared by anesthesiologist and pastry chef Thomas Lo’08 and wines selected by internist-wine connoisseur Richard Weinberg’08.
Gala Dinner-Dance on the Hudson
|Left: Eric Jon Olson’84 and wife Beatriz Rodriguez Olson’84;
right: Shearwood J. McClelland’74 and wife Yvonne S. Thornton’73
Celebrants arrived early enough at the gala reception dinner-dance Saturday evening at Chelsea Piers to catch the sun setting from the terrace overlooking the Hudson River before taking to the ballroom to salute honorees, cheer on the soon to be M.D.s of the graduating class, celebrate the 25th and 50th anniversary classes, and dance the night away.
And the Gold Goes To…
Kenneth Forde’59, Honors and Awards Committee chair, officiated at the awards ceremony.
Roger Unger’47, the Touchstone/West Distinguished Professor in Diabetes Research and professor of internal medicine at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center in Dallas, was awarded the 2009 Gold Medal for Outstanding Achievements in Medicine. One of the country’s leading endocrinologists, Dr. Unger developed a glucagon radioimmunoassay establishing the hormonal status of glucagon and its physiologic impact in diabetes. His lab was the first to study the bi-hormonal interplay of the islet hormones in diabetes and, more recently, documented the insidious link between obesity and type 2 diabetes. Dr. Unger was unable to attend the reunion because of illness.
The 2009 Gold Medal for Outstanding Achievements in Clinical Medicine went to Joseph McCarthy’64, the Lawrence D. Bell Professor of Plastic Surgery and director of the Institute of Reconstructive Plastic Surgery at New York University Medical Center. Dr. McCarthy, a pioneer in craniofacial distraction as a surgical discipline, introduced the concept of surgical reconstruction of the face as early as infancy, thereby relieving psychosocial suffering in childhood and adolescence.
|Alumni Association president William B. Macaulay’92 and Dean Lee Goldman
with gold medalists Joseph McCarthy’64, Jacqueline Bello’80, Carol Berkowitz’69,
Hadi Halazun’09, and Honors and Awards Committee chair Kenneth A. Forde’59
This year’s recipient of the Virginia Kneeland Frantz’22 Award for Distinguished Women in Medicine was Carol Berkowitz’69. One of America’s most respected academic pediatricians and child advocates, Dr. Berkowitz, professor of pediatrics at the David Geffen School of Medicine at the University of California, Los Angeles, is an internationally known expert in child abuse and failure to thrive. Also a role model for generations of women in medicine, she has worked tirelessly for equal treatment for women pediatricians in academics and practice and for making pediatric training programs more family-friendly.
Jacqueline Bello’80 received the Gold Medal for Meritorious Service to P&S and its Alumni Association. Director of neuroradiology at Albert Einstein College of Medicine, president of the New York State Radiology Society, and former president of the P&S Alumni Association, Dr. Bello continues to be active in the association as chair of the Student/Alumni Relations Committee and other alumni committees. In addition, she has been one of the most effective class chairpersons, rallying her classmates to record giving.
This year’s gold medal to a graduating student in recognition of interest in and devotion to P&S and its alumni association went to Hadi Halazun’09. Dr. Halazun helped organize Teamworx, a team-building group of activities with neighborhood residents, helped brief the incoming director of student activities, taught anatomy in the Student Success Network, and capped off his four years at P&S as president of the P&S Club, arguably the most active and comprehensive student activities organization in any American medical school.
Alumni Association Activities
|Guest speaker Donald O. Quest’70
The guest speaker at the Council Dinner on March 18, 2009, Donald O. Quest’70, professor of neurological surgery, vice chair of the Department of Neurological Surgery, and assistant dean for student affairs at P&S, took alumni down medical memory lane with a colorful slide show and anecdote-packed talk titled “P&S: Founding Fathers.” Dr. Quest recalled the central role played by Dr. Samuel Bard, one of the most distinguished physicians of his day, whose brainchild, the medical school of King’s College, the precursor of P&S, was the first school in the American colonies to award the M.D. degree. Dr. Bard was the first professor of the practice of physic at the new institution, of which he was also trustee and, later, dean. Dr. Quest also focused on two other founding fathers of P&S, Dr. Nicholas Romaine, a renowned professor of physic, and Dr. David Hosack, professor of midwifery and surgery. Dr. Hosack is perhaps best known for having bequeathed his medicinal botanical garden to Columbia University, the future site of Rockefeller Center.
Parents’ Day Program
|Wayne “Martin” Bauknight’12 and his father,
Wayne Bauknight Sr. of Charlotte, N.C.
The Alumni Association hosts an annual program geared to the people who often pay for and live vicariously through the medical school experience without the intellectual payoff. This year’s Parents’ Day Program, held April 18, 2009, let loved ones have a taste of the thrill of learning, P&S style. Alumni Association president William B. Macaulay’92 and Dean Lee Goldman welcomed family members. Other participants were Ellen Spilker, director of student financial planning; Andrew G. Frantz’55, associate dean for admissions; Dr. Lisa A. Mellman, senior associate dean for student affairs; and Ronald E. Drusin’66, vice dean for education. Faculty presentations included a talk on narrative medicine by Dr. Rita Charon, professor of clinical medicine, and an explanation of the residency selection process by Dr. Paul Lee, assistant clinical professor of medicine. The student perspective was presented by Brendan Norwood’09, Daniel Stephens’10, Rochelle Hartley’11, and Kathie Huang’10.
Celebrating Success: Anniversary
Committee Recognition Dinner
|from top: Jorge De Jesus, director of annual giving; Richard J. Stock’47,
chair of the P&S Alumni Fund and the P&S Alumni Capital Campaign;
Dean Lee Goldman; and Donald W. Landry’83, chair of the Department
of Medicine at P&S; Kenneth A. Forde’59, Columbia University trustee
and honorary chairman of the P&S Alumni Capital Campaign; P. Roy
Vagelos’54, CUMC Capital Campaign Chair; Jacqueline A. Bello’80,
Class of 1980 chair
The mood was merry May 28, 2009, at the Donald F. Tapley Faculty Club, where P&S anniversary class campaign leaders gathered to toast success. “Since you’re celebrating class chairmen and I happen to be one, you’re celebrating me as well. So I don’t have to be on the defensive,” said the master of ceremonies Kenneth A. Forde’59, a trustee of Columbia University and honorary chairman of the P&S Alumni Capital Campaign, figuratively loosening his tie. “CUMC exceeded its goal of raising $1 billion a long time ago,” Dr. Forde reported, calling on a few fellow alumni leaders to share their thoughts.
Raising his glass in his dual capacity as chairman of the P&S Alumni Fund and chairman of the P&S Alumni Capital Campaign, Richard J. Stock’47 saluted the attendees. “It is you who have labored so hard in the vineyards of the medical school.” Burton Lee’56, former personal physician to President George H. Bush, recalled that “P&S took a chance on me and I owe them a hell of a lot and I’m deeply grateful.” His own generous gift helped his class reach its goal of $1 million, with a challenge gift of $500,000 from classmate and University trustee Clyde Wu’56. Pointing to a group of her class campaign committee members, queen bee Jacqueline A. Bello’80 said, “That’s the secret, worker bees. Just be persistent, dwell on participation, it pays off. There isn’t a day that goes by that I don’t appreciate the value of my medical education, there isn’t a day that I don’t wear something blue, the color of Columbia.”
“I want to thank you all for being so loyal and doing such a terrific job,” said Dean Lee Goldman. “Your support is one of the key components of our success.”
Reflecting on what the medical school meant to him, CUMC Capital Campaign Chair P. Roy Vagelos’54 recalled a recent visit with Ephraim P. Engleman’37, a distinguished rheumatologist. At 98 the oldest practicing alumnus, Dr. Engleman still directs the Rosalind Russell Medical Research Center for Arthritis at the University of California, San Francisco, sees select patients, and plays a Stradivarius violin. “We have a heritage to look to with pride, a heritage of P&S family connections,” said Dr. Vagelos. “There’s no group of people I’d rather be working with. With your help we will continue to educate America’s finest doctors.”
By Marianne Wolff’52
Class of 1936
On March 31, 2009, Lawrence F. Withington observed his 99th birthday! We are told that he walks daily (while logging his distance), then returns to his house to do floor exercises. He counts P&S Journal as being among his favorite reading materials.
Class of 1947
See Alumni in Print to read about a book by Alex Caemmerer Jr.
Class of 1949
See the Class of 1980 for a photo of Edward T. Bello with his daughter, Jacqueline Bello.
Class of 1959
In addition to his medical accomplishments and recognition by Columbia University, featured many times on these pages, Kenneth A. Forde is a pillar of his church, Christ Church in Riverdale, N.Y. There he is a member of the vestry, a warden, a lay reader, Eucharist minister, and a member of the choir and several committees. He also is involved in the Caribbean Anglican Consultation and serves as a member of the Board for Episcopal Social Services, as a trustee of Berkeley Divinity School at Yale, and as a commander in the Venerable Order of St. John in Jerusalem. Earlier this year Ken was featured in the Episcopal New Yorker newspaper.
Class of 1961
Alan A. Wanderer, clinical professor at the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center in Denver, participated in a video for PBS dealing with a new component of the innate immune system called Cryopyrin inflammasome (NALP-3 inflammasome). This led to the identification of three syndromes with the same gene mutation and effective treatment that blocks the inflammation. (The program, “The Mysterious Syndrome Called CAPS,” can be viewed at www.healthybodyhealthymind.com.) Dr. Wanderer believes these syndromes may have applications in treating other diseases with ischemia and reperfusion.
Retired from the practice of general preventive medicine, Susan P. Wright (nee Standfast) now spends her time as a volunteer playing music to patients and staff in hospitals and nursing homes in the Albany, N.Y., area. Susan is a certified music practitioner and teaches students of music and healing and transition. She plays the dulcimer, a four-stringed instrument, and sometimes sings as well. Her audience includes newborns, persons at the end of life, and patients at all stages in between. An article featuring Susan’s work, which also references Columbia’s Dr. Oliver Sachs’ book, “Musicophilia,” appeared in the Albany Times Union in January 2009.
Class of 1961
Class of 1965
Peter E. Dans is associate professor of medicine at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. An internist with expertise in infectious diseases, geriatrics, quality assurance, and ethics, he is currently working on issues related to drugs in the elderly. A longstanding fan of movies, Peter has written the “Physician at the Movies” column for Pharos, the quarterly journal of Alpha Omega Alpha, for almost 20 years and is the author of “Doctors in the Movies: Boil the Water and Just Say Aah!” See Alumni in Print to read about his new book.
The Hospital for Special Surgery in New York bestowed a Lifetime Achievement Award on John P. Lyden in June 2009 at the Waldorf Astoria Hotel. John is an orthopedic trauma surgeon who specializes in fractures; he is a participant in an NIH-funded multicenter study of hip fractures. In addition to his clinical work he serves on multiple committees at the Hospital for Special Surgery and is an orthopedic surgeon for the New York City Police Department.
Class of 1966
The U.S. President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology held its first meeting under the Obama administration Aug. 6 and 7, 2009. One of the three co-chairs for the 21-member advisory panel is Harold Varmus, Nobel laureate, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center president, and former NIH director. Also, see Alumni in Print to read about Harold’s just-released memoir.
Class of 1970
The San Diego Science Festival annually recognizes the most prominent scientists in San Diego, a group named “The Nifty Fifty.” This year’s 50 included Dennis Carson, who works on new treatments for malignancies, particularly those affecting the lymphoid system.
“I gave birth to twin books this year,” wrote Sally Kasparek Severino. Read about both arrivals in Alumni in Print. Now professor emeritus of psychiatry at the University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Dr. Severino served as the first woman president of the American College of Psychoanalysts. She is also a Felician Associate of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary Province in Rio Rancho, N.M.
Class of 1973
Kevin Creelman was named 2009 Alaska Family Physician of the Year by the Alaska Academy of Family Physicians at the academy’s annual scientific conference in Seward, Alaska, in June 2009. Raised in Bremerton, Wash., Kevin received a degree in zoology at the University of Washington in Seattle before enrolling at P&S. After three years in the Public Health Service in Kotzebue and three in an Anchorage multispecialty clinic, Dr. Creelman moved to the rural community of Kodiak, Alaska, where he has practiced for 27 years, including covering a weekly 24-hour ER shift and providing free weekly foot care clinics at Kodiak Senior Center. He recently was named assistant clinical professor of family medicine at the University of Washington School of Medicine. The Alaska Academy of Family Physicians is a state chapter of the American Academy of Family Physicians, which represents more than 94,600 physicians and medical students and is the only medical society devoted solely to primary care.
The annual roster of the best black doctors in New York and New Jersey included John T. Herbert in its 2009 listing.
Class of 1975
The 2009 Leonard Tow Humanism in Medicine Award of the Arnold P. Gold Foundation was given to David Roye, the St. Giles Foundation Professor of Pediatric Orthopedic Surgery at P&S.
Class of 1976
Dan Carr continues to produce articles and books. His two most recent books are described in Alumni in Print. He was an intern and resident in internal medicine at Columbia and now is the Saltonstall Professor of Pain Research in the Department of Anesthesia at Tufts Medical Center in Boston.
Class of 1978
Class of 1980
Col. Jonathan Newmark, a neurologist, recently had a CD of his own compositions, “Jonathan Newmark. Trios and Duos: Chamber Music 1993-2001,” released by Music Unlimited (www.musicunlimited.com). Music scored variously for strings, woodwinds, and piano comprises the first three pieces. The last piece on the disc is “Chaconne & Fugue for Horn and Piano”; its subtitle is “In Memoriam, Dr. John Chase Wood Jr.” The composer as pianist often accompanied John Wood’76, an avid horn player, before Dr. Wood’s murder in 1981. In the piece dedicated to his friend, Jonathan plays the piano part.
Jacqueline Bello received a 2009 Columbia University Alumni Medal from Columbia University President Lee Bollinger at May’s commencement exercises. She was recognized again at an official ceremony and dinner at Low Library in early November. She is shown here with her father, Edward T. Bello’49, celebrating 60 years since his P&S graduation, and her mother.
James T. Goodrich was one of the invited lecturers at a Moscow conference titled “Horizons in Neurosurgery: Lectures by Leaders in World Neurosurgery.” He was the only American named an honorary neurosurgeon at Burdenko Neurological Institute in Russia. Jim is director and professor of clinical neurological surgery, pediatrics, and plastic & reconstructive surgery at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine. He holds a Ph.D. and an honorary D.Sci. in addition to his P&S degree.
Class of 1982
|James Goodrich’80 and wife Judy at
the 2009 alumni reunion
The American Psychopathological Association has announced that Ezra Susser will be its new president; his term begins in 2012. Ezra is professor of epidemiology at the Mailman School of Public Health and professor of psychiatry at P&S.
Class of 1983
Barbara Van de Wieleof Los Angeles, Calif., Adam Rovit of Henderson, Nev., Gail Schlesinger of Encino, Calif., and Andy Sacks of Orchard Park, N.Y.
Class of 1984
Class of 1985
Beatriz Olson is a contributing author on a new book, “Women’s Health for Life,” published this year by Dorling Kindersley. The book is written by women doctors for women on all topics of women’s health. “It is beautifully illustrated and easy to read so that it empowers women to be healthier and to seek health through current knowledge,” Beatriz writes. She wrote chapters titled “Staying Well” and “Endocrinology.”
Following an 18-year term on the faculty of P&S, culminating in the position of professor of otolaryngology, Jonathan E. Aviv joined ENT and Allergy Associates, a 96-physician New York and New Jersey ENT and allergy practice with 28 offices, as clinical director of the newly formed laryngology program. The practice is associated with Mount Sinai Medical Center and has an ongoing partnership with the American Cancer Society to promote smoking cessation in local communities. Jonathan was formerly chairman of the Speech, Voice and Swallowing Disorders Committee of the American Academy of Otolaryngology/Head & Neck Surgery, technical adviser to the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research branch of the Department of Health and Human Services, and former president of the American Broncho-Esophagological Association.
The New York State Society for Dermatology and Dermatological Surgery has elected David E. Bank to be its president. He previously served the organization as a member of the Board of Directors. In the past Dave was president of the Westchester County Medical Society and served on the New York State Commissioner of Health’s Special Task Force to develop safety guidelines for office-based surgery. He is vice chairman of the Dermatology Foundation Leaders Society and a founding member of Amonette Circle of the Skin Cancer Foundation. Almost 20 years ago he founded (and served as director of) the Center for Dermatology, Cosmetic and Laser Surgery in Mount Kisco, N.Y. Dave is the author of “Beautiful Skin: Every Woman’s Guide to Looking her Best at any Age.”
Class of 1986
Thomas R. Frieden assumed his new role June 8, 2009, as director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and administrator of the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry after being tapped by President Obama for the positions in May. Tom is the 16th CDC director. “I’m excited about the opportunity to lead CDC. The depth and breadth of knowledge at CDC is enormous,” he said upon taking the position. Obama administration officials, he said, “recognize the importance of prevention, something CDC does well. Both are committed to prevention as a key component of health reform, as evidenced by the Recovery Act, and have highlighted the need for our society to do more to prevent, manage, and treat chronic diseases.” Tom left his post as New York City health commissioner after seven years that included successful campaigns against smoking and the use of trans-fats for cooking in restaurants; campaigns in support of needle exchanges and condom distribution to lessen the spread of AIDS; and other public health measures that led to a significant decline in death rates in the city. Although his policies created protests, the executive director of Trust for America’s Health labeled Dr. Frieden as one “who has the courage to shake up the status quo, if science and evidence show that change needs to happen.”
Class of 1988
One of the new 2009 Glenda Garvey Teaching Academy Fellows is Deborah L. Cabaniss, associate clinical professor of psychiatry at P&S. She also received the Bohmfalk Award for Excellence in Clinical Instruction at the 2009 commencement.
NYU’s Langone Medical Center has appointed John G. Golfinos to be the new chair of its Department of Neurological Surgery. John was previously associate professor of neurosurgery and otolaryngology at NYU and helped open the Gamma Knife Stereotactic Radiosurgery Center, in conjunction with the Department of Radiation Oncology. He also co-founded the Neurofibromatosis Center. In his new position John plans to open a Brain Tumor Center. He is a member of the NYU Cancer Institute. In 2008 he was listed as one of the best doctors in New York by Castle Connolly.
Class of 1992
Michael Argenziano, associate professor of surgery at P&S, has become a member of the American Association of Thoracic Surgeons.
Stephen M. Canfield has been named as one of the 2009 Glenda Garvey Teaching Academy Fellows. Steve, who also has a Ph.D., is assistant professor of medicine at P&S.
John Krakauer has been promoted to associate professor of neurology, with tenure, at P&S. John’s areas of interest are motor control and stroke recovery.
Class of 1995
Kathie-Ann Joseph, assistant professor of surgery at P&S, has been named to the medical advisory board of the New York City affiliate of the Susan G. Komen Foundation. Kathie-Ann, who also has an M.P.H., works on the surgical oncology of breast cancer, particularly as it affects African-American women.
Class of 1997
John D.F. Allendorf has been granted membership in the American Association of Endocrine Surgeons. John is assistant professor of surgery at P&S.
Adam Ratner has been elected to membership of the Society of Pediatric Research. Adam holds a Ph.D. in addition to his M.D.
Class of 1998
Magda Sobieszcyk, assistant professor of clinical medicine in infectious diseases at P&S, was selected to be one of the attendees at a professional development seminar for early career medical faculty; the seminar was held in Washington, D.C., in July 2009.
Class of 1999
Early this year Shahid Aziz completed yet another mission to Bangladesh, where he and his team performed surgery on 35 patients with cleft lips.
Class of 2000
As of July 1, 2009, the new medical correspondent of CBS TV’s “The Early Show” will be Jennifer (Garfein) Ashton. Look for her at about 7.45 a.m.
John P. Morrow, who is an instructor in clinical medicine-cardiology at P&S, is involved in translational research and has been selected to be one of the Louis V. Gerstner Jr. Scholars. He will set out to study whether left ventricular assists improve heart failure in advanced stages.
Class of 2004
Shearwood McClelland III, better known as “Woody,” has been selected for inclusion in the 63rd (2009) edition of “Who’s Who
Class of 2006
Josh Bazell has sold screen rights to his debut novel, “Beat the Reaper,” published in early 2009.
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Alumni in Print
Houses of New Orleans
Alex Caemmerer Jr.’47
Schiffer Publishing, 2008
While walking the streets of New Orleans during a 1992 visit, Dr. Caemmerer became intrigued with the historic architecture of New Orleans as it evolved during the 19th century. He photographed and researched houses for this book in an effort to capture the most colorful and esthetically appealing houses in the old part of the city and the Garden District. The book follows his “The Houses of Key West,” an illustrated book about the 19th century architecture of Key West’s historic district, a place that had captured his imagination since he first visited Key West on a tour of duty as a naval psychiatrist during the Korean War. In “Houses of New Orleans,” Dr. Caemmerer points out the rich details lavished on even simple structures — shotgun houses — and discusses how tastes changed over the 19th and 20th centuries.
Christians in the Movies:
A Century of
Saints and Sinners
Rowman & Littlefield
In his new book, Dr. Dans contrasts the portrayal of Christians before 1970 (favorable and reverential) and after (hostile and ridiculing) and explores the reasons for the shift. These include the abolition of the Hays Motion Picture Production Code, the demise of the National Legion of Decency, and changes in society and cultural norms. From “The Life and Passion of Jesus Christ” (1905) through “Doubt” (2008), he reviews and comments on almost 200 films, with a brief historical introduction by decade. The book also includes backstories such as the truth behind “Inherit the Wind,” portraits of actors, directors, and writers associated with Christian-themed films, numerous stills, and an extensive filmography and bibliography.
The Art and Politics
W.W. Norton & Co., 2009
In this memoir, Dr. Varmus writes about his remarkable career as a Nobel Prize-winning cancer biologist, leader of major scientific institutions, and veteran of science policy wars. The book describes several transformations, including one in which he turns to medicine after a year into a Ph.D. in English literature. From academic science, he transformed into a political figure as head of the NIH. As president of Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, his current position, he continues to work in his lab, remaining committed to collaborative science. The publisher calls the book “a glimpse into the world of high-stakes, big-budget science narrated by a man intimately acquainted with its everyday applications … an education for people in all walks of life from a scientist whose own research and professional commitments helped to shape our scientific age.”
Sally Kasparek Severino’70
Templeton Press, 2009
Is the call to spirituality embedded in human biology? Dr. Severino and co-author Nancy K. Morrison, M.D., draw on research that includes the recent discovery of brain “mirror neurons” and the elucidation of the physiology of social affiliation and attachment to make a case that humans are biologically wired to seek oneness with the divine. They termed this innate urge sacred Desire. Drawing on neurophysiology, relationship studies, research on spiritual development, and psychotherapy, the two psychiatrists show how spirituality and physical being are connected. The authors offer several clinical examples of how recognizing sacred Desire can advance a person’s healing and provide a plan for using it to move from fear to love of self, others, and all creation.
Psychoanalyst’s Spiritual Journey
Sally Kasparek Severino’70
Epigraph Books, 2009
In her memoir, Dr. Severino shows readers how to synthesize spiritual beliefs and science, inner lives, and our work in the world. The book describes her journey as an ordinary person who discovers the extraordinary — faith in God — amidst atheism as a Freudian psychoanalyst. Her path through personal tragedy and loss to her new life’s work of bridging psychiatry and spirituality provides inspiration. “The current economic climate is forcing people to re-evaluate their deepest needs. We’re discovering that underneath our material abundance is often a pervasive spiritual poverty. And conventional science doesn’t help: In the final analysis, we are deeply hungry for something beyond the answers science offers. But it can take a time of breaking down to open us up and turn things around.”
Cousins and Bridenbaugh’s
Neural Blockade in Clinical Anesthesia
and Pain Medicine, 4th Edition
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2008
Dr. Carr is one of four editors and a chapter author for this comprehensive, authoritative text that presents the scientific foundations and clinical practice of neural blockade in regional anesthesia and pain management. Using classic examples of pain mechanisms, the fourth edition flows logically from principles and pharmacology to techniques for each anatomic region to applications. This edition has new chapters on topics including neurologic complications, neural blockade for surgery, treatment of pain in older people, and complications in pain medicine. A companion Web site offers fully searchable text and an image bank.
and Quality of Life: A Sourcebook
Dr. Carr and Harriet M. Wittink, Ph.D. (University of Applied Sciences Utrecht, The Netherlands), co-edited and contributed chapters for this volume on evidence-based pain management. With emphasis on demonstrating the effectiveness of treatment and patient management through measurement of treatment outcomes, the book provides both researchers and clinicians with tools to make the most appropriate treatment choice for each patient and to assess the cost-effectiveness of treatment in relation to pain management. A companion CD-ROM provides public-domain outcomes instruments and questionnaires.