What is acoustic neurinoma?
The vestibular system controls balance and posture; regulates locomotion and other movements; provides conscious awareness of orientation in space; and provides conscious awareness of visual fixation in motion.
Balance can be impaired by disease, altered gravity, aging, and exposure to unusual motion.
When balance is impaired, normal movement is affected, as well as motivation, concentration, and memory.
Source: National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD)
Acoustic neurinoma, also referred to as acoustic neuroma or vestibular schwannoma, is a non-cancerous tumor that may develop from an overproduction of Schwann cells that press on the hearing and balance nerves in the inner ear. Schwann cells are cells that normally wrap around and support nerve fibers. If the tumor becomes large, it can press on the facial nerve or brain structure.
What are the symptoms of acoustic neurinoma?
The following are the most common symptoms of acoustic neurinoma. However, each individual may experience symptoms differently.
When a neurinoma develops, it may cause any/all of the following:
- hearing loss
- paralysis of a facial nerve
- life-threatening problems in the brain
The symptoms of acoustic neurinoma may resemble other conditions or medical problems. Always consult your physician for a diagnosis.
What are the different types of acoustic neurinomas?
There are two types of acoustic neurinomas:
- Unilateral acoustic neurinomas - affect only one ear, and account for 8 percent of all tumors inside the skull. This tumor may develop at any age, but most often occurs between the ages of 30 and 60. Acoustic neurinoma may be the result of gene damage caused by environmental factors.
- Bilateral acoustic neurinomas - affect both ears and are hereditary, caused by a genetic disorder called neurofibromatosis-2 (NF2). This tumor develops in the teens or early adulthood.
How are acoustic neurinomas diagnosed?
Because symptoms of acoustic neurinomas resemble other middle and inner ear conditions, they may be difficult to diagnose. Preliminary diagnostic procedures include ear examination and hearing test. Computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans help to determine the location and size of the tumor.
Early diagnosis offers the best opportunity for successful treatment.
Treatment for acoustic neurinoma:
Specific treatment for acoustic neurinoma will be determined by your physician based on:
- your age, overall health, and medical history
- extent of the disease
- your tolerance for specific medications, procedures, or therapies
- expectations for the course of the disease
- your opinion or preference
Treatment may include surgery to remove small acoustic neurinomas. Surgery for larger tumors is complicated by the probable damage to hearing, balance, and facial nerves. Another treatment option is radiosurgery, often called the "gamma knife," using carefully focused radiation to reduce the size or limit the growth of the tumor.