AAHP American Association of Health Plans,
   AAHRPP Association for the Accreditation of Human Research Protections Programs,
   ACCME Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education,
   ACCP American College of Clinical Pharmacy,
   ACR American College of Radiology,
   ACRP Association of Clinical Research Professionals,
   ADE Adverse Drug Event
   ADR Adverse Drug Reaction
   AE Adverse Event
   AOIR Association of Internet Researchers,
   ARENA Applied Research Ethics National Association,
   ATTC Addiction Technology Transfer Center,
   BCOP Board Certified Oncology Pharmacist
   BCP Birth Control Pills
   CABG Cardiac/Coronary Artery Bypass Graft
   CALGB Cancer and Leukemia Group B,
   CBER Center for Biologics and Research,
   CCCG Children's Cooperative/Cancer Group (now COG),
   CCOP Childhood Cancer Ombudsman Program or Community Clinical Oncology Program,
   CCSG Children's Cancer Study Group (now known as CCG)
   CDER Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (US - FDA),
   CDRH Center for Devices and Radiological Health (US FDA),
   CE Covered Entity
   CFR Code of Federal Regulations
   CIHR Canadian Institute for Health Research,
   CIM Certified IRB Manager
   CIOMS Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences,
   CIP Certified IRB Professional
   CIRB Central Institutional Review Board of the NCI,
   CLIA Clinical Laboratory Improvement Act/Amendment
CMHS Center for Mental Health Services/Community Mental Health Services,
   CMS Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services,
   CME Continuing Medical Education
   COC Certificate of Confidentiality
   COG Cooperative Oncology Groups funded by NCI: See also CCG, COG, ECOG, GOG, RTOG, POG, CALGP, 
and NABTC  
   COG Children's Oncology Group,
   COGR Council on Government Relations,
   COI Conflict of Interest
   CORP NIH Council of Public Representatives,
   CPA Cooperative Project Assurance
   CR Common Rule
   CRA Clinical Research Associate
   CRC  Clinical Research Coordinator
   CRF Case Report Form
   CRO Clinical Research Organization/Contract Research Organization
   DHEW Department of Health, Education and Welfare (no longer exists)
   DHHS Department of Health and Human Services (replaced DHEW),
   DIA Drug Information Association
   DMC Data Monitoring Committee
   DOE (US) Department of Education,
   DSMB Data Safety Monitoring Board
   EBM Evidence-based medicine
   ECOG Eastern Co-operative Oncology Group,
   ECRI Emergency Care Research Institute,
   EQUIC Enhancing Quality of Informed Consent
   ER Emergency Room
   FDA Food and Drug Administration,
   FERPA Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (aka the Buckley Amendment),
   FDLI Food and Drug Law Institute,
   FWA Federal Wide Assurance
   GCP Good Clinical Practice
   GeMCRIS Genetic Modification Clinical Research Information System
   GMP Good Manufacturing Practice
   GOG Gynecologic Oncology Group,
   GTSAB Gene Transfer Safety Assessment Board
   HCFA Health Care Financing Administration (now known as CMS; Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services)  
   HDE Humanitarian Device Exemption (what a HUD is classified as)
   HIPAA Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act
   HMO Health Maintenance Organization
   HPA Human Protections Administrator
   HRP Human Research Protections
   HREC Human Research Ethics Committee
   HRT Hormone Replacement Therapy
   HSR Health Services Research
   HUD Humanitarian Use Device
   IACUC Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee,
   IB Investigator's Brochure
   IBC Institutional Biohazard Committee (needed in gene transfer research). Also Inflammatory Breast Cancer
   ICD Informed Consent Document
   ICF Individual Consent Form or Institutional Consent Form
   ICH International Conference on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals
   ICH-GCP International Conference on Harmonization Good Clinical Practice,
   ICMJE International Committee of Medical Journal Editors,
   ICS Informed Consent Statements
   ICU Intensive Care Unit
   IDB Investigator's Drug Brochure
   IDE Investigational Device Exemption
   IEC Institutional Ethics Committee/Independent Ethics Committee
   IND Investigational New Drug (application)
   IRB Institutional Review Board
   IRSG Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Group
   JCAHO Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations,
   JIT Just in Time (procedure)
   LAR Legally Authorized Representative
   LCME Liason Committee for Medical Education,
   LDS Limited Data Set
   LEP Limited English Prociency
   LTF Long-Term Facilitation/Long-Term Fellowship
   LTF Subjects Lost to Follow-up Subjects
   MI Myocardial Infarction (heart attack)
   MPA Multiple Project Assurance
   MSM Men who have Sex with Men
   MSO Medical Staff Office
   NABTC North American Brain Tumor Consortium,
   NAIM National Association of IRB Managers,
   NAIAD Nerve Agent Immobilized Enzyme Alarm & Detector
   NBAC National Bioethics Advisory Commission,
   NCCTG North Central Cancer Treatment Group,
   NCI National Cancer Institute,
   NCIC CTG National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trial Group,
   NCPHSBBR National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research
   NCQA National Committee for Quality Assurance (currently responsible for accreditation of VA research programs)
   NDA New Drug Application
   NICU Neonatal Intensive Care Unit
   NHRPAC National Human Research Protections Advisory Committee,
   NIA Nonaffiliated Investigator Agreement
   NIH National Institutes of Health,
   NSABP National Surgical Adjuvant Breast & Bowel Project,
   NSAID Non-Steroid Anti-Inflammatory Drug
   NSR Non significant Risk
   NRMI National Registry of Myocardial Infarction,
   NWTSG National Wilms' Tumor Study Group,
   OBA Office of Biotechnology Activities,
   OCR Office of Civil Rights,
   OHRP Office of Human Research Protections (formerly OPRR),
   OLES Open Label Extension Studies
   OR Operating Room
   ORA Office of Regulatory Affairs/Office of Research Administration,
   ORCA Office of Research Oversight, Veterans Health Administration, (formerly ORCA)
   ORI Office of Research Integrity,
   OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Administration,
   PCP Primary Care Physician
   PCR Polymerase Chain Reaction (technique to replicate fragment of DNA for genetic analysis)
   PD Program Director
   PDUFA Prescription Drug User Fee Act of 1992
   PHI Private Healthcare Information/Public Health Information/Protected Health Information
   PHS Public Health Service (see also USPHS United States Public Health Service),
   PI Principal Investigator
   P&P Policies and Procedures
   PM Project Manager
   PMA Pre Market Approval
   PPRA Protection of Pupil Rights Amendment,
   POA Power of Attorney
   POG Pediatric Oncology Group (merged with CCG, now COG),
   PRIM&R Public Responsibility in Medicine and Research,
   QA Quality Assurance
   QC Quality Control
   QI Quality Improvement
   QIC Quality Improvement Committee
   QIP Quality Improvement Program
   QOL Quality of Life
   RAC Recombinant-DNA Advisory Committee
   RAPS Regulatory Affairs Professionals Society,
   RCO Regulatory Compliance Officer
   RCR Responsible Conduct of Research
   RCT Randomized Control Trial
   REB Research Ethics Board
   RFP Request for Proposal
   RTOG Radiation Therapy Oncology Group,
   SAE Serious Adverse Events
   SAP Suspect Adverse Reaction
   SBIR Small Business Innovative Research
   SC Study Coordinator
   SCID Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Disease
   SIDCER Strategic Initiative for Developing Capacity in Ethical Review,
   SMO Site Management Organization
   SOP Standard Operating Procedure
   SPA Single Project Assurance
   SR Safety Report/Significant Risk
   SRO Sponsored Research Office
   SWOG South West Oncology Group,
TCPS Tri-Council Policy Statement, policystatement/policystatement.cfm 
   URI Upper Respiratory Infection
   USPHS United States Public Health Service,
   VA Veteran's Affairs,
   VPR Vice President for Research
   WHI Women's Health Initiative,
   WMA World Medical Association,
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Columbia University Medical Center