The Department has excellent facilities for conducting research in the biophysical, cellular, and molecular biological sciences. In addition to modern, spacious laboratories, the department has state-of-the-art instrumentation available to investigators within departmental research groups. The NMR facility, which has recently been upgraded, houses 500 and 600 MHz Bruker NMR spectrometers. The X-ray facility includes three area detectors (1 Hamlin Multiwire and 2 R-Axis) equipped with cryosystems and three x-ray generators, all managed by engineer Joseph Lidestri. There are ample facilities for conducting measurements in optical spectroscopy, including a JASCO circular dichroism spectrophotometer, UV-visible spectrophotometers, and two new fluorimeters, including an SLM 48000 steady-state and lifetime apparatus with laser and lamp excitation sources. There are advanced computing facilities within the Department, including at least 25 Silicon Graphics workstations and a new Convex computer. These machines, together with other advanced computing facilities available on the Columbia network, such as the new DEC alpha 2100 4-275 available through the Comprehensive Cancer Center, provide ample computing power for most applications. There are excellent microscopy facilities within the Department, including confocal microscopes for imaging. Centralized cell sorting facilities are available as are state of the art DNA sequencing, peptide/DNA synthesis, and protein sequencing core facilities.