Alopecia is hair loss, or absence of hair. Alopecia is usually most noticeable on the scalp, but can occur anywhere on the body where hair normally grows. The condition is more common in men than in women.
What causes hair loss?
The most common types of hair loss are believed to be primarily caused by a combination of the following:
change in hormones
family history of alopecia
However, hair loss is not caused by the following:
poor circulation to the scalp
a gene passed on from an individual's maternal grandfather
Generally, the earlier hair loss begins, the more severe the alopecia will become.
What are the different types of alopecia?
Hair loss can be classified into various types, depending on the cause. Several of the many different types of alopecia include the following:
female-pattern hair loss
Although less common, female-pattern hair loss differs from that of male-pattern hair loss in that the hair generally thins all over the head, but the frontal hairline is maintained. Female-pattern hair loss rarely results in total hair loss.
male-pattern hair loss
Male-pattern hair loss usually is a hereditary condition. The condition may begin at any age. Hair loss often begins on the front, sides, and/or on the crown of the head. Some men may develop a bald spot or just a receding hair line, while others may lose most of their hair.
This hair loss disorder is most commonly characterized by sudden loss of hair in one particular area, which grows back after several months. A less common pattern is diffuse thinking/loss of hair from all over the head. However, if all body hair is suddenly lost, regrowth may not occur. The cause of this type of hair loss is unknown but scientists (including our own) are working to elucidate the causes.
Telogen effluvium may occur following a high fever or severe illness. Certain medications, especially thallium, high doses of vitamin A, and retinoids, may cause telogen effluvium. Medical conditions, such as thyroid disease, and giving birth may also trigger telogen effluvium. The condition is characterized by temporary hair loss. Also, some cancer medications can cause hair loss.
Scarred areas may prevent the hair from growing back. Scarring may occur from burns, injury, or x-ray therapy. However, other types of scarring that may cause hair loss can be caused by diseases such as lupus, bacterial or fungal skin infections, lichen planus, sarcoidosis, tuberculosis, or skin cancer.
trichotillomania (hair pulling)
Hair pulling, a habit most common among children, may cause hair loss.
How is the type of alopecia diagnosed?
In addition to a medical history, physical examination and laboratory testing (blood work), a biopsy of the scalp area may help to identify the type of baldness and/or its cause.
Treatment for HAIR LOSS:
Specific treatment for hair loss will be determined by your physician based on:
your age, overall health, and medical history
extent of the condition
your tolerance for specific medications, procedures, and therapies
expectation for the course of the disease
your opinion or preference
Most forms of hair loss have no cure. Some types of hair loss will disappear on their own. Treatment may include:
certain medications to promote hair growth (such as minoxidil and finasteride)
The interest in hair replacement has significantly increased over the past 10 years. Two out of every three men, and one in five women, suffer from hair loss. For men, the main cause of a diminishing hairline is heredity. Hormonal changes such as menopause can cause both thinning and hair loss in women.
There are a number of hair replacement techniques that are available, although hair replacement surgery cannot help those who suffer from total baldness. Candidates for hair replacement must have a healthy growth of hair at the back and sides of the head. The hair on the back and sides of the head will serve as hair donor areas where grafts and flaps will be taken.
There are four primary different types of hair replacement methods. However the last three are not commonly recommended:
During hair transplantation, the surgeon removes small pieces of hair-bearing scalp grafts from the back or sides of the head. These grafts are then relocated to a bald or thinning area.
In this procedure, a device called a tissue expander is placed underneath a hair-bearing area that is located next to a bald area. After several weeks, the tissue expander causes the skin to grow new skin cells. Another operation is then required to place the newly expanded skin over the adjacent bald spot.
Flap surgery is ideal for covering large balding areas. During this procedure a portion of the bald area is removed and a flap of the hair-bearing skin is placed on to the bald area while still attached at one end to its original blood supply.
Scalp reduction is done in order to cover the bald areas at the top and back of the head. This technique involves the removal of the bald scalp with sections of the hair-bearing scalp pulled together filling in the bald area.
Possible complications associated with hair transplantation procedures:
Possible complications associated with hair transplantation procedures may include, but are not limited to, the following:
patchy hair growth
Sometimes, the growth of newly placed hair has a patchy look, especially if it is placed next to a thinning area. This can often be corrected by additional surgery.
bleeding and/or wide scars
Tension on the scalp from some of the scalp reduction techniques can result in wide scars and/or bleeding.
grafts not taking
Occasionally, there is a chance that the graft may not "take." If this is the case, surgery must be repeated.
As with any surgical procedure, there is the risk of infection.